According to Physics Nobelist Carl Wieman it’s a lot like “effective coaching”. This in his testimony to Congress after stepping down from OSTP–story is here.
I couldn’t agree more. The fundamental problem with STEM education as its practiced here in the US is the notion that that effective pedagogy involves lecturing in front of a class. My best chemistry professor at Amherst College taught quantum chemistry by having us solve progressively more difficult problems, all while being available (seemed like 24/7–and before the Internet) to coach us through what seemed impossible.